This is a legacy version of the WELL Building Standard. Please check the latest version here.

Appendix C: Tables

The following tables are referred to in various requirements of the WELL Building Standard™. The first letter of the table name denotes the concept chapter it refers to, e.g. "A" for Air.

Table A1: High Touch Surfaces
Table A2: Reduced Risk Pesticides
Table A3: Materials Restrictions
Table A4: Cleaning Protocol
Table A5: Mercury Limits
Table N1: Produce Storage Temperatures
Table L1: Melanopic Ratio
Table L2: Melanopic and Visual Response

Table A1: High-Touch Surfaces

These are surfaces that require more frequent and thorough sanitization. Cleaning protocols should list these surfaces within the project and incorporate the correct cleaning instructions accordingly. Based on CDC Environmental Checklist for Monitoring Terminal Cleaning.


Elevator buttons
Public digital devices and keyboards
Light switches
Bathroom handles and fixtures
Countertops in bathrooms
Toilet handles and lids
Bathtubs and shower walls and floor
Interior shower and bath surfaces
Kitchen handles and fixtures
Countertops in kitchens
Non-disposable medical devices
Bed railing
Serving trays and bed tables


Upholstered furniture covers
Fabric curtains
Bedding: linens, pillow cases and comforter

Table A2: Reduced Risk Pesticides

For up-to-date and immediate San Francisco Hazard Review Process evaluation results, the Pesticide Research Institute's PestSmart tool or Pesticide Product Evaluator tool may be used.

If a pesticide has not yet been evaluated by the Pesticide Research Institute's tools above, use the Guide to the San Francisco's Reduced Risk Pesticide List Hazard Tier Review Process, which outlines the procedure for evaluating pesticides.

Table A3: Materials Restrictions

This table specifies the harmful chemicals found in building materials that are disallowed by the WELL Building Standard in the features listed below.

Feature : Fundamental material safety
Chemical Name
Polychlorinated biphenyl
Polychlorinated biphenyls 1336-36-3
Neutral anhydrous carbonate PbCO₃ 598-63-0
Lead sulfate Pbx SO₄ 15739-80-7
Lead sulfate PbSO₄ 7446-14-2
Trilead-bis(carbonate)- dihydroxide 2Pb CO₃-Pb(OH)₂ 1319-46-6
Asbestos 1332-21-4
Actinolite 77536-66-4/12172-67-7
Anthophyllite 77536-67-5/17068-78-9
Amosite 12172-73-5/12172-73-5
Chrysotile 12001-29-5/12001-29-5
Crocidolite 12001-28-4/12001-28-4
Tremolite 77536-68-6/14567-73-8
Feature : Toxic material reduction
Chemical Name
Hexamethylene diisocyanate 822-06-0
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate 101-68-8/9016-87-9
Toluene diisocyantes 584-84-9
Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2
Diisodecyl phthalate 26761-40-0/68515-49-1
Benzylbutyl phthalate 85-68-7
Di-n-octyl phthalate 117-84-0
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate 117-81-7
Diisononyl phthalate 28553-12-0/68515-48-0
Halogenated flame retardants
Pentabromodiphenyl ether 182346-21-0
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate 115-96-8
Hexabromocyclododecane 25637-99-4
Octabromodiphenyl ether 446255-56-7
Decabromodiphenyl ether 1163-19-5
Tetrabromobisphenol-A 79-94-7
Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate 13674-84-5
Dechlorane Plus 13560-89-9
Formaldehyde based resins
Phenol formaldehyde 9003-35-4
Urea formaldehyde 9011-05-6
Melamine formaldehyde 82115-62-6

Table A4: Cleaning Protocol

Cleaning Practice Evaluation

An improved cleaning protocol is achieved through a baseline assessment or evaluation prior to incorporation of appropriate changes. A project's cleaning practice must be evaluated to best incorporate the following changes and/or additions.

Cleaning Equipment

Projects must implement a program for the use of sustainably powered cleaning equipment that abide by Green Seal 42, Standard for Commercial and Institutional Cleaning Services for Powered Equipment Use/ Maintenance Plan or local equivalent for projects outside the United States. Additionally, the following requirements must be met:

  1. For projects in humid climates, as designated by ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007, powder carpet cleaning systems must be used in place of traditional carpet extraction systems.
  2. Battery-powered equipment must be equipped with envir 2. onmentally preferable gel batteries.
  3. Equipment must be designed with safeguards, such as rollers or rubber bumpers, to reduce potential damage to building surfaces.
  4. Where possible, equipment that eliminates or reduces chemical use and qualifies as a sanitizing device under EPA when used with water and no chemicals, including steam vapor equipment and spray/vacuum touch-free cleaning systems, must be used.
Program Protocol

A successful cleaning program requires, beyond the selection of safer products, proper training and use of green cleaning materials and products. Projects must have in place a cleaning program that addresses the following:

  1. Chemical Measuring and Dilution: A control system; for example a wall mounted dispensing system for concentrates, that limits direct handling and worker exposure to chemicals, ensures proper dilution of mixtures and prevents overuse or waste.
  2. Training on Procedures: Sequencing of cleaning steps and use of personal protective equipment.
  3. Training on Safety: Training on how to reduce and prevent ergonomic injuries and exposure to hazardous materials.
  4. Annual In-Service Training: Training on use of certified green cleaning products, materials and equipment.
  5. Training on Purchasing: Training of purchasing personnel in the selection of green cleaning materials.

Cleaning Product Selection

Eco-label certifiers: Design for the Environment (DfE), EcoLogo and Green Seal address the human health, ecological toxicity and environmental fate characteristics of chemical ingredients used in cleaning products. By establishing specifications that prioritize ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class, these eco-label certifiers reduce potential hazards associated with use of cleaning products. When selecting cleaning products, all projects must comply by below guidelines (adopted from U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Rating System Version 4). For projects outside the United States, any Type 1 eco-labeling program as defined by ISO 14024: 1999 developed by a member of the Global Ecolabelling Network may be used in place of Green Seal or UL EcoLogo standards.

Cleaning Products by Functional Class

Cleaning products must meet the relevant standard per appropriate functional class or use case, or a local equivalent for projects outside the United States.

  1. Green Seal GS-37, for general-purpose, bathroom, glass and carpet cleaners used for industrial and institutional purposes.
  2. UL EcoLogo 2792, for cleaning and degreasing compounds.
  3. UL EcoLogo 2759, for hard-surface cleaners.
  4. UL EcoLogo 2795, for carpet and upholstery care.
  5. Green Seal GS-40, for industrial and institutional floor care products.
  6. UL EcoLogo 2777, for hard-floor care.
  7. UL EcoLogo 2798, for digestion additives for cleaning and odor control.
  8. UL EcoLogo 2791, for drain or grease trap additives.
  9. UL EcoLogo 2796, for odor control additives.
  10. Green Seal GS-52/53, for specialty cleaning products.
  11. EPA Design for the Environment Program’s Standard for Safer Cleaning Products.
Hand Hygiene Products

Hand soaps and hand sanitizers must meet the relevant standard per appropriate functional class or use case, or a local equivalent for projects outside the United States.

  1. No antimicrobial agents (other than as a preservative) except where required by health codes and other regulations (e.g., food service and health care requirements).
  2. Green Seal GS-41, for industrial and institutional hand cleaners.
  3. UL EcoLogo 2784 or EPA’s Design for the Environment, for hand cleaners and hand soaps.
  4. UL EcoLogo 2783, for hand sanitizers.
  5. EPA Design for the Environment Program’s standard for safer cleaning products.
Janitorial Products

Disposable janitorial paper products and trash must meet the relevant standard per appropriate functional class or use case, or a local equivalent for projects outside the United States.

  1. EPA comprehensive procurement guidelines for janitorial paper.
  2. Green Seal GS-01 for tissue paper, paper towels and napkins.
  3. UL EcoLogo 175 for toilet tissue.
  4. UL EcoLogo 175 for hand towels.
  5. California integrated waste management requirements (California Code of Regulations Title 14, Chapter 4, Article 5, or SABRC 42290-42297 Recycled Content Plastic Trash Bag Program) or EPA comprehensive procurement guidelines for plastic trash can liner.

Disinfection and Sanitization

High-touch surfaces present increased risk for contamination, particularly in high transit areas. A cleaning protocol must take into account the degree to which disinfection and sanitization are necessary. Unnecessary disinfection and sanitization can negatively impact immune health. Although reduced exposure to microorganisms and parasites can result in decreased disease and illness, it is also increasingly linked to a rising prevalence of hypersensitivity disorders and autoimmune diseases, especially in industrialized nations.

Cleaning for Health

Projects must limit disinfection to high-touch surfaces in areas including but not limited to restrooms, community rooms, gymnasium and workout areas in accordance with Green Seal 42, Standard for Commercial and Institutional Cleaning Services Edition 2.1, 2013.

  1. Disinfection (Section 4.6, with the exception of product specification in 4.6.2)
  2. Restroom Care (Section 4.7)
  3. Dining Areas and Break Rooms (Section 4.8)

Entryway Maintenance

Entryway maintenance and care is critical to minimizing dirt and pollutants tracked in from the outdoor environment. Clean and well-maintained entryways can contribute greatly to improved indoor air quality.

Entryways and Lobbies

In order to minimize the migration of contaminants into the building, projects must adhere to the below cleaning and maintenance guidelines for entryways and lobbies:

  1. Walk-off mats, indoor and outdoor, should be wet-cleaned once every two days and allowed to dry before being used.
  2. The underside of entry mats should be cleaned at least once a day and twice a day during inclement weather.
  3. Entry mats must be vacuumed using a vacuum with a beater bar in both directions, at least once a day and twice a day during inclement weather.
  4. Non-toxic and environmentally safe ice melting compounds (e.g., non-corrosive, non- phosphate) must be selected through the winter months.

Table A5: Mercury Limits

This table indicates allowable mercury limits in lamps, as referred to in the Fundamental Material Safety feature. Values from LEED PBT source reduction - mercury prerequisite

Lamp Maximum Hg Content
Compact, integral ballast 3.5 mg
T-5, circular 9 mg
T-5, linear 2.5 mg
T-8, eight-foot 10 mg
T-8, four-foot 3.5 mg
T-8, two- and three-foot 3.5 mg
T-8, U-bent 6 mg
High-pressure sodium
Lamp Maximum Hg Content
400 W or less 10 mg
Over 400 W 32 mg

Table N1: Produce Storage Temperatures

This table specifies appropriate temperature ranges for storing produce. Information is adapted from the Cornell Storage Guidelines for Fruits and Vegetables.

Cool: 6-12 °C [43-54 °F]
Rosaceae (Apples, Cherries, Peaches, Pears and Strawberries
Solanaceae (Eggplant, Peppers, Potatoes and Tomatoes)
Leguminosae (Beans)
Cucurbitaceae (Cantaloupe, Cucumbers, Summer Squash, Watermelon and Winter Squash)
Cold: 1-4 °C [34-39 °F]
Vitaceae (Grapes)
Asteraceae (Artichokes, Endive/Escarole and Lettuce
Umbelliferae (Carrots, Celery, Fennel, Parsley and Parsnips)
Poaceae/Gramineae (Corn)
Chenopodiaceae (Beets, Spinach and Swiss Chard)
Brassicaceae (Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale and Radishes)
Amaryllidaceae/Liliaceae (Asparagus, Chives, Garlic, Leeks and Onions)

Table L1: Melanopic Ratio

The Equivalent Melanopic Lux (EML) is a measurement of light's effects on the circadian cycle.

This unit Equivalent Melanopic Lux (EML) was proposed by Lucas and others (Lucas et al., "Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age." Trends in Neuroscience, Jan 2014). The authors provided a toolbox which for a desired spectrum derives equivalent “α-opic” lux for each of the five photoreceptors in the eye (three cones, rods, and the ipRGCs). The authors selected scaling constants such that each of the values would be identical to each other and the standard definition of lux for a light spectrum of perfectly uniform energy (CIE Standard Illuminant E).

Given a spectrum of light, each equivalent α-opic lux is related to each other by a constant. The table below shows the example ratios between the equivalent melanopic lux and the standard visual lux for several sources.

To calculate the equivalent melanopic lux (EML), multiply the visual lux (L) designed for or measured in a building by this ratio (R): EML = L × R. For example, if incandescent lights provide 200 lux in a space, they will also produce 108 equivalent melanopic lux. If daylight is modeled to provide the same visual brightness (200 lux), it will also provide 220 equivalent melanopic lux.

Similar melanopic ratios can be determined by incorporating the spectrum of the desired source into the calculations in Table L2. Projects are encouraged to use this approach to obtain more accurate results. Both the authors of the journal article and the IWBI have spreadsheets to aid in this calculation.

CCT(K) Light Source Ratio
2700 LED 0.45
3000 Fluorescent 0.45
2800 Incandescent 0.54
4000 Fluorescent 0.58
4000 LED 0.76
5450 CIE E (Equal Energy) 1.00
6500 Fluorescent 1.02
6500 Daylight 1.10
7500 Fluorescent 1.11

Table L2: Melanopic and Visual Response

To calculate the melanopic ratio of light, start by obtaining the light output of the lamp at each 5 nm increment, either from manufacturer or by using a spectrometer. Then, multiply the output by the melanopic and visual curves given below to get the melanopic and visual responses. Finally, divide the total melanopic response by the total visual response and multiply the quotient by 1.218.

Although the ipRGCs have a peak sensitivity at about 480 nm, the melanopic response in this table peaks at 490 nm because it takes into account the adult eye's lens, which preferentially transmits longer wavelength light.

Wavelength Light Output Melanopic Curve Melanopic Response Visual Curve Visual Response
380 0.00092 0.00004
385 0.00167 0.00006
390 0.00309 0.00012
395 0.00588 0.00022
400 0.01143 0.00040
405 0.02281 0.00064
410 0.04615 0.00121
415 0.07948 0.00218
420 0.13724 0.00400
425 0.18710 0.00730
430 0.25387 0.01160
435 0.32068 0.01684
440 0.40159 0.02300
445 0.47400 0.02980
450 0.55372 0.03800
455 0.62965 0.04800
460 0.70805 0.06000
465 0.78522 0.07390
470 0.86029 0.09098
475 0.91773 0.11260
480 0.96560 0.13902
485 0.99062 0.16930
490 1.00000 0.20802
495 0.99202 0.25860
500 0.96595 0.32300
505 0.92230 0.40730
510 0.86289 0.50300
515 0.78523 0.60820
520 0.69963 0.71000
525 0.60942 0.79320
530 0.51931 0.86200
535 0.43253 0.91485
540 0.35171 0.95400
545 0.27914 0.98030
550 0.21572 0.99495
555 0.16206 1.00000
560 0.11853 0.99500
565 0.08435 0.97860
570 0.05870 0.95200
575 0.04001 0.91540
580 0.02687 0.87000
585 0.01786 0.81630
590 0.01179 0.75700
595 0.00773 0.69490
600 0.00507 0.63100
605 0.00332 0.56680
610 0.00218 0.50300
615 0.00143 0.44120
620 0.00095 0.38100
625 0.00063 0.32100
630 0.00042 0.26500
635 0.00028 0.21700
640 0.00019 0.17500
645 0.00013 0.13820
650 0.00009 0.10700
655 0.00006 0.08160
660 0.00004 0.06100
665 0.00003 0.04458
670 0.00002 0.03200
675 0.00001 0.02320
680 0.00001 0.01700
685 0.00001 0.01192
690 0.00000 0.00821
695 0.00000 0.00572
700 0.00000 0.00410
705 0.00000 0.00293
710 0.00000 0.00209
715 0.00000 0.00148
720 0.00000 0.00105
725 0.00000 0.00074
730 0.00000 0.00052
735 0.00000 0.00036
740 0.00000 0.00025
745 0.00000 0.00017
750 0.00000 0.00012
755 0.00000 0.00008
760 0.00000 0.00006
765 0.00000 0.00004
770 0.00000 0.00003
775 0.00000 0.00002
780 0.00000 0.00001