This is a legacy version of the WELL Building Standard. Please check the latest version here.

Injury prevention

As people are provided more opportunities for physical activity, there is also more opportunity for acute injury. This is especially true for young people. Among people in the U.S. under 20, nearly 40% of deaths can be attributed to unintentional injuries. Injuries acquired from slips, falls, and run-ins with cars are predictable and largely preventable.

Part 1: Sufficient Lighting

Outdoor lighting meets the following requirements:

a.126 Emit no light above the horizontal plane.
b.140 Use shielding so that the angle of viewing is not less than 80°.
c.139 Able to produce a maintained average of at least 10 to 30 lux [1 to 3 fc] as measured on vertical surfaces 1.5 m [5 ft] above the ground.
Part 2: Sidewalks

Sidewalks on the site meet the following requirements:

a.155 Located on both sides of the road.
b.154 Minimum of 1.5 m [5 ft] in width.
c.155 Minimum buffers of 1 m [3 ft] in width.
d. Provide direct access from parking/loading areas to a building entrance.
e.148 Schools must establish policies and procedures ensuring that sidewalks and parking areas are clear of snow, ice, leaves, or any other obstacle.
Part 3: Crosswalks

Crosswalks on the site meet the following requirements:

a.150 Markings for crosswalks present at all stop signs, traffic signals, and major points of pedestrian concentration.
b.150 Are a minimum of 1.8 m [6 ft] in width.
c.151 Are raised for enhanced visibility and vehicle speed reduction.
Part 4: Safe Routes to School

A program modeled after Safe Routes to School is developed with parental support and implemented at the school with at least the following:

a.171 Drop-off/pick-up lanes are differentiated from bus lanes.
b.172 School crosswalk warning postings with arrows pointing to the location of the crosswalk are visible at all crosswalks.
c.152 Curb extensions a minimum of 1.8 m [6 ft] are present in locations of high pick-up/drop-off activity and low visibility areas and at crosswalks.
d.149 Bicycle paths are a minimum of 1.5 m [5 ft] in width.
e. Bicycle paths are differentiated from pedestrian paths.
Part 5: Playgrounds

If present, playgrounds meet the following requirements:

a.141 Surfaces around playground equipment have a minimum of 30 cm [12 in] of wood chips, mulch, sand, or mats made of safety-tested rubber or rubber-like materials.
b.141 Protective surfacing covers a minimum of 1.8 m [6 ft] in all directions from the edge of any playground equipment. Under swings, the protective surface covers twice the height of the suspending bar, in both directions.
c.141 Openings in guardrails or between ladder rungs are not between 9 to 22 cm [3.5 to 9 in].
d.141 Dangerous hardware such as open "S" hooks or protruding bolt ends are not present.

Applicability Matrix

Commercial Kitchen Education Multifamily Residential Restaurant Retail
Part 1: Sufficient Lighting - P - - -
Part 2: Sidewalks - P - - -
Part 3: Crosswalks - P - - -
Part 4: Safe Routes to School - P - - -
Part 5: Playgrounds - P - - -

Verification Methods Matrix

Letters of Assurance Annotated Documents On-Site Checks
Part 1: Sufficient Lighting Owner Spot Check
Part 2: Sidewalks Owner Spot Check
Part 3: Crosswalks Owner Spot Check
Part 4: Safe Routes to School Owner Spot Check
Part 5: Playgrounds Owner Spot Check
126

International Dark Sky Association and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) with User's Guide. www.ies.org/PDF/MLO/MLO_FINAL_June2011.pdf. Published June 15, 2011. Accessed September 15, 2014.

P8.1.a

The MLO allows 0% light emission above 90 degrees (away from the downward direction) for street or area lighting in lighting zones 0 through 4.

139

American National Standards Institute and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. American National Standard Practice on Lighting for Educational Facilities. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America; 2013. RP-3-13.

P8.1.c

ANSI RP-3-13 notes that a recent study found 30 lx was required for a perception of safety at night and that this perception decreased when illuminance fell below 10 lx. Also noted that illumination should be provided at 1.5 m for facial recognition.

140

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Light + Design: A Guide to Designing Quality Lighting for People and Buildings. New York, NY: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2008. DG-18-08.

P8.1.b

IESNA suggests the selection of outdoor luminaires that limit light emitted at angles at or above 80°.

141

Consumer Product Safety Commission. Public Playground Safety Checklist. CPSC website. http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Guides/Sports-Fitness-and.... Accessed March 26, 2015.

P8.5.d

The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises to check for any dangerous hardware, incuding open "S" hooks and protruding bolt ends.

P8.5.b

The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises checking that protective surfacing extends a minimum of 6 feet from playground equipment, and at least twice the length of the height of the suspending bar under swings.

P8.5.c

The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises that spaces that may trap children are either less than 3.5 inches, or more than 9 inches.

P8.5.a

The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises that surfaces around playground equipment "have at least 12 inches of wood chips, mulch, sand, or pea gravel, or are mats made of safety-tested rubber or rubber-like materials."

148

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access: Chapter 4- Sidewalk Design Guidelines and Existing Practices. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/publications/side.... Updated February 10, 2014. Accessed March 26, 2015.

P8.2.e

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration notes that obstacles that extend onto the path of travel can present pedestrian hazards for people with visual impairments and some other users.

149

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation: Lesson 19- Bicycle Lanes. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/univcourse/pdf/swless19.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2015.

P8.4.d

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation notes that bike lanes should be at least 1.5 meters wide.

150

Zegeer, CV, Stewart, JR, Huang, HH, Lagerwey, PA, Feaganes, J, Campbell, BJ; Federal Highway Administration. Safety Effects of Marked versus Unmarked Crosswalks and Uncontrolled Locations: Final Report and Recommended Guidelines. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/04100/04100.pdf. Published September 2005. Accessed March 27, 2015.

P8.3.b

The recommended guidelines state that "crosswalk width should not be less than 1.8 meters".

P8.3.a

These recommended guidelines state that "crosswalks should be marked at all intersections that have 'substantial conflict between vehicular and pedestrian movements.'"

151

New York City Department of Transportation. Pedestrians: Traffic Calming Design Guidelines. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pedestrians/traffic-calming.shtml. Published 2015. Accessed March 27, 2015.

P8.3.c

The City of New York's Traffic Calming Design Guidelines states that raised crossings combine the benefits of speed reduction and improved visibility.

152

Sacramento Transportation & Air Quality Collaborative. Best Practices for Pedestrian Master Planning and Design. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/pedestrians/traffic-calming.shtml. Published October 2005. Accessed March 27, 2015.

P8.4.c

The Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Best Practices states that in general, "curb extensions should extend a minimum of 6 feet into the street adjacent to parallel parking".

154

Hilberry, G, Hilton, E, Prosser, W, Frank, L; U.S. Access Board. Planning and Design for Alterations: Chapter 5 – Model Sidewalks. http://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/streets-sidewalks/p.... Accessed March 26, 2015.

P8.2.b

The United States Access Board's Planning and Design for Alterations notes that 5 ft is the preferred width for the accessible corridor in the pedestrian zone.

155

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation: Lesson 13- Walkways, Sidewalks, and Public Spaces. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/univcourse/pdf/swless13.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2015.

P8.2.c

The Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, Lesson 13 notes that it is essential that the back side of sidewalks have a minimum buffer of 1 to 3 feet.

P8.2.a

The U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation recommends sidewalks on "both sides of all urban arterial, collector, and most local roadways."

171

Hawaii Department of Transportation. Children and School Zones. http://hidot.hawaii.gov/highways/files/2013/07/Pedest-Tbox-Toolbox_8-Chi.... Accessed March 31, 2015.

P8.4.a

The Hawaii Department of Transportation notes as a best design practice that "bus and auto drop-off zones should be separated to minimize confusion and conflicts."

172

Robert Kniefel; Municipality of Anchorage Traffic Department. School Zone Policy Manual. http://www.muni.org/Departments/works/traffic/Documents/School%20Zone%20.... Published February 2006. Accessed March 31, 2015.

P8.4.b

The School Zone Policy Manual includes a standard which states that a school crosswalk warning sign shall be installed at crosswalks and be supplemented with a plaque indicating the location of the crosswalk.