P8. Injury prevention
To ensure that spaces for active transportation and physical activity are clear of obstacles and safe for use.
As people are provided more opportunities for physical activity, there is also more opportunity for acute injury. This is especially true for young people. Among people in the U.S. under 20, nearly 40% of deaths can be attributed to unintentional injuries. Injuries acquired from slips, falls, and run-ins with cars are predictable and largely preventable.
Outdoor lighting meets the following requirements:
Sidewalks on the site meet the following requirements:
Crosswalks on the site meet the following requirements:
A program modeled after Safe Routes to School is developed with parental support and implemented at the school with at least the following:
If present, playgrounds meet the following requirements:
|Commercial Kitchen||Education||Multifamily Residential||Restaurant||Retail|
|Part 1: Sufficient Lighting||-||P||-||-||-|
|Part 2: Sidewalks||-||P||-||-||-|
|Part 3: Crosswalks||-||P||-||-||-|
|Part 4: Safe Routes to School||-||P||-||-||-|
|Part 5: Playgrounds||-||P||-||-||-|
Verification Methods Matrix
|Letters of Assurance||Annotated Documents||On-Site Checks|
|Part 1: Sufficient Lighting||Owner||Spot Check|
|Part 2: Sidewalks||Owner||Spot Check|
|Part 3: Crosswalks||Owner||Spot Check|
|Part 4: Safe Routes to School||Owner||Spot Check|
|Part 5: Playgrounds||Owner||Spot Check|
The MLO allows 0% light emission above 90 degrees (away from the downward direction) for street or area lighting in lighting zones 0 through 4.
ANSI RP-3-13 notes that a recent study found 30 lx was required for a perception of safety at night and that this perception decreased when illuminance fell below 10 lx. Also noted that illumination should be provided at 1.5 m for facial recognition.
IESNA suggests the selection of outdoor luminaires that limit light emitted at angles at or above 80°.
The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises to check for any dangerous hardware, incuding open "S" hooks and protruding bolt ends.
The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises checking that protective surfacing extends a minimum of 6 feet from playground equipment, and at least twice the length of the height of the suspending bar under swings.
The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises that spaces that may trap children are either less than 3.5 inches, or more than 9 inches.
The Public Playground Safety Checklist advises that surfaces around playground equipment "have at least 12 inches of wood chips, mulch, sand, or pea gravel, or are mats made of safety-tested rubber or rubber-like materials."
The U.S. Federal Highway Administration notes that obstacles that extend onto the path of travel can present pedestrian hazards for people with visual impairments and some other users.
The U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation notes that bike lanes should be at least 1.5 meters wide.
The recommended guidelines state that "crosswalk width should not be less than 1.8 meters".
These recommended guidelines state that "crosswalks should be marked at all intersections that have 'substantial conflict between vehicular and pedestrian movements.'"
The City of New York's Traffic Calming Design Guidelines states that raised crossings combine the benefits of speed reduction and improved visibility.
The Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Best Practices states that in general, "curb extensions should extend a minimum of 6 feet into the street adjacent to parallel parking".
The United States Access Board's Planning and Design for Alterations notes that 5 ft is the preferred width for the accessible corridor in the pedestrian zone.
The Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, Lesson 13 notes that it is essential that the back side of sidewalks have a minimum buffer of 1 to 3 feet.
The U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation recommends sidewalks on "both sides of all urban arterial, collector, and most local roadways."
The Hawaii Department of Transportation notes as a best design practice that "bus and auto drop-off zones should be separated to minimize confusion and conflicts."
The School Zone Policy Manual includes a standard which states that a school crosswalk warning sign shall be installed at crosswalks and be supplemented with a plaque indicating the location of the crosswalk.