Concept & Feature References

The following pages list the sources used for statistics and other material in the descriptions for the concepts and features in the WELL Building Standard™.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

1Air quality standards
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/hpguide.html. Updated July 3, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
2Smoking ban
Jamal A, Agaku IT, O'Connor E, King BA, Kenemer JB, et al. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults—United States, 2005-2013. 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 63, pp. 1108-1112.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/hpguide.html. Updated July 3, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
American Lung Association. What's in a Cigarette? http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/facts-figures/whats-in-a-cigarette.html. Accessed February 11, 2015.
3Ventilation effectiveness
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Make Your House a Healthy Home. EPA-908-K-10-001. January 2012. http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-05/documents/healthy_homes_brochure_english.pdf. Accessed May 19, 2015.
4VOC reduction
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Benzene. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/benzene.html. Updated October18, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs: Chemical Agents and Related Occupations. Volume 100F. 2012. WHO Press, Geneva.
McGwin G, Lienert J, Kennedy JI. Formaldehyde Exposure and Asthma in Children: A Systematic Review. 2010. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 118, pp. 313-317.
Krzyzanowski M, Quackenboss JJ, Lebowitz MD. Chronic Respiratory Effects of Indoor Formaldehyde Exposure. 1990. Environmental Research, Volume 52, pp. 117-125.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html. Updated July 9, 2012. Accessed April 16, 2015.
5Air filtration
Pope CA, Burnet RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, et al. Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution. 2002. Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 287, pp. 1132-1141.
Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Mack WJ, Beckerman B, LaBree L, et al. Ambient Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. 2005. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, pp. 201-206.
Chen LH, Knutsen SF, Shavlik D, Beeson WL, Petersen F, et al. The Association Between Fatal Coronary Heart Disease and Ambient Particulate Air Pollution: Are Females at Greater Risk? 2005. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, pp. 1723-1729.
6Microbe and mold control
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chapter 1: Introduction to Molds. http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/chapter1.html. Updated March 8, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
9Cleaning protocol
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html. Updated July 9, 2012. Accessed April 16, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Facts No. 4: Sick Building Syndrome. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pdfs/sick_building_factsheet.pdf. Published February 1991. Accessed April 16, 2015.
10Pesticide management
Gilliom J, Barbash JE, Crawford CG, Hamilton PA, Martin JD, et al. Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1291,172 p.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Atrazine in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/atrazine.cfm#eight. Updated September 17, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine. Chemical Summary. http://www.epa.gov/teach/chem_summ/Atrazine_summary.pdf. Updated April 24, 2007. Accessed April 21, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Glyphosate in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/glyphosate.cfm. Updated February 9, 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
11Fundamental material safety
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Asbestos. http://www.epa.gov/airtoxics/hlthef/asbestos.html. Updated October 18, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. America's Children and the Environment, Third Edition (ACE3) – Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). http://www.epa.gov/ace/pdfs/Biomonitoring-PCBs.pdf. 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Lead Compounds. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/lead.html. Updated October 18, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
13Air flush
Rutgers Center for Green Buildings. New Jersey Green Building Manual: Building Flush. http://greenmanual.rutgers.edu/newcommercial/strategies/buildingflush.pdf. Updated May 17, 2011. Accessed April 22, 2015.
16Humidity control
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/hpguide.html. Updated July 3, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chapter 1: Introduction to Molds. http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/chapter1.html. Updated March 8, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
World Health Organization. Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality – Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010: 141-142.
Parthasarathy S, Maddalena RL, Russell ML, Apte MG. Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Formaldehyde Emissions in Temporary Housing Units. 2011. Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, Volume 61, pp. 689-695.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Workplace Safety & Health Topics: Handling Irradiated Mail. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/irr-mail/opm-letter.html. Updated October 5, 2012. Accessed May 1, 2015.
17Direct source ventilation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). http://www.epa.gov/iaq/voc.html. Updated July 9, 2012. Accessed April 16, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects: Ground Level Ozone. http://www.epa.gov/groundlevelozone/health.html. Updated November 26, 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chapter 1: Introduction to Molds. http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/chapter1.html. Updated March 8, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2015.
19Operable windows
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Statement: Formaldehyde. Atlanta: United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2008.
22Pest control
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Cockroach Allergy. http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&sub=22&cont=312. Updated 2011. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cockroaches and Schools. http://www2.epa.gov/managing-pests-schools/cockroaches-and-schools. Updated April 28, 2015. Accessed May 1, 2015.
24Combustion minimization
Blumenthal I. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. 2001. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 94, pp. 270-272.
Consumer Product Safety Commission. Carbon Monoxide Questions and Answers. http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Education-Centers/Carbon-Monoxide-Information-Center/Carbon-Monoxide-Questions-and-Answers-/. Updated 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
25Toxic material reduction
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs). http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=900&tid=94. Updated March 25, 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
26Enhanced material safety
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Facts No. 4: Sick Building Syndrome. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pdfs/sick_building_factsheet.pdf. Published February 1991. Accessed April 16, 2015.
27Antimicrobial activity for surfaces
Sawan SP, Shalon T, Subramanyam S, Yurkovetskiy A. U.S. 5849311 A Patent. Contact-killing Non-leaching Antimicrobial Materials. http://www.google.com/patents/US5849311. Updated October 1996. Accessed April 22, 2015.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

30Fundamental water quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA 816-F-09-004. Published May 2009. Washington, D.C.
Herson DS, Marshall DR, Victoreen HT. Bacterial Persistence in the Distribution System. 1984. Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 76, pp. 309-322.
Olson BH. Bacterial Colonization of Mortar-lined and Galvanized Iron Water Distribution Mains. 1981. AWWA National Conference, Denver, CO.
Dvorak B, Skipton I, Sharon O. Drinking Water Treatment: An Overview. Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska. August 2014, Lincoln, NE.
Olson E. What's on Tap: Grading Drinking Water in U.S. Cities. 2003. Natural Resources Defense Council. Washington, D.C.
31Inorganic contaminants
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information About Lead in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/lead.cfm. Updated February 5, 2014. Accessed May 1, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information About Mercury (Inorganic) in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/mercury.cfm. Updated February 5, 2014. Accessed May 1, 2015.
32Organic contaminants
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Statement – Polychlorinated Biphenyls. November 2000. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA 816-F-09-004. Published May 2009. Washington, D.C.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. July 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
33Agricultural contaminants
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Glyphosate in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/glyphosate.cfm. Updated February 9, 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Gilliom J, Barbash JE, Crawford CG, Hamilton PA, Martin JD, et al. Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1291,172 p.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA 816-F-09-004. Published May 2009. Washington, D.C.
Environmental Working Group. National Drinking Water Database 2,4-D. http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/24-D/2105/. Updated 2011. Accessed April 21, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid) in Drinking Water. ;http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/2-4-d-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid.cfm#eight . Updated December 13, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Atrazine in Drinking Water. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/atrazine.cfm#eight. Updated September 17, 2013. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Mizota K, Ueda H. Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Atrazine Causes Degranulation through Gq/11 Protein-coupled Neurosteroid Receptor in Mast Cells. 2005. Toxicological Sciences, Volume 90, pp. 362-368.
34Public water additives
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association. Nature's Way to Prevent Tooth Decay: Water Fluoridation. 2006.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA 816-F-09-004. Published May 2009. Washington, D.C.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Basic Information about Disinfectants in Drinking Water: Chloramine, Chlorine, and Chlorine Dioxide. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/disinfectants.cfm. Updated December 13, 2013. Accessed April 28, 2015.
Olson E. What's on Tap: Grading Drinking Water in U.S. Cities. 2003. Natural Resources Defense Council. Washington, D.C.
World Health Organization. Trihalomethanes in Drinking-Water. 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.
Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, Grimalt JO, Malats N, Silverman D, et al. Bladder Cancer and Exposure to Water Disinfection By-products through Ingestion, Bathing, Showering and Swimming in Pools. 2006. American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 165, pp. 148-156.
37Drinking water promotion
Medline Plus. Dehydration. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htm. Updated April 9, 2015. Accessed April 21, 2015.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

38Fruits and vegetables
World Health Organization. Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Around the World: Information Sheet. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/fruit/en/index2.html. Accessed April 20, 2015.
World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. 2002. http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2015.
U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, December 2010. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Produce for Better Health Foundation. State of the Plate: 2010 Study on America’s Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables. 2010. http://www.pbhfoundation.org/pdfs/about/res/pbh_res/stateplate.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2015.
39Processed foods
Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, et al. Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. 2009. Circulation, Volume 120, Issue 11, pp. 1011-1020.
American Heart Assocation. Added Sugars. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Added-Sugars_UCM_305858_Article.jsp. Updated November 19, 2014. Accessed April 20, 2015.
Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despres JP, Willett WC, et al. Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. 2010. Diabetes Care, Volume 33, Issue 11, pp. 2477-2483.
Sayon-Orea C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Gea A, Alonso A, Pimenta AM, et al. Baseline Consumption and Changes in Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension: The SUN Project. 2014. Clinical Nutrition, November 22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481680. Accessed April 20, 2015.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC Guide to Strategies for Reducing the Consumption of Sugar-sweetened Beverages. March 2010.
40Food allergies
Food Allergy Research & Education. Food Allergy Facts and Statistics for the U.S. http://www.foodallergy.org/document.doc?id=194. Accessed April 20, 2015.
USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Food Safety Information: Allergies and Food Safety. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/1e98f24c-d616-443f-8490-f7372476d558/Allergies_and_Food_Safety.pdf?MOD=AJPERES. Published July 2011. Accessed April 20, 2015.
41Hand washing
Food and Drug Administration. Food Code: 2013 Recommendations of the United States Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration. PB2013-110462. Published 2013.
Huang C, Ma W, Stack S. The Hygienic Efficacy of Different Hand-drying Methods: A Review of the Evidence. 2012. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Volume 87, Issue 8, pp. 791-798.
43Artificial ingredients
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Is it Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodallergy/understanding/pages/foodintolerance.aspx#lactose. Updated December 2, 2010. Accessed April 20, 2015.
45Food advertising
The International Association of Consumer Food Organizations. Broadcasting Bad Health: Why Food Marketing to Children Needs to Be Controlled. A Report by the International Association of Consumer Food Organizations for the WHO Consultation on a Global Strategy on Diet and Nutrition. https://cspinet.org/reports/codex/foodmarketingreport.pdf. Published July 2003. Accessed April 20, 2015.
Federal Trade Commission. Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents, A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self-regulation: A Report to Congress. Published July 2008.
46Safe food preparation materials
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biomonitoring Summary Bisphenol A. CAS No. 80-05-7. National Biomonitoring Program. 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/BisphenolA_BiomonitoringSummary.html. Accessed May 19, 2015.
Food and Drug Administration. Update on Bisphenol A for Use in Food Contact Applications. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm064437.htm. 2014. Updated January 6. 2015. Accessed May 1, 2015.
47Serving sizes
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/causes. Updated July 13, 2012. Accessed April 20, 2015.
Wansink B, Van Ittersum K. The Visual Illusions of Food: Why Plates, Bowls, and Spoons Can Bias Consumption Volume. 2006. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Volume 20, A618. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/20/4/A618-c. Accessed April 20, 2015.
Rolls BJ. Dietary Strategies for Weight Management. 2012. Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, Volume 73, pp. 37-48.
Giblin C. The Perils of Large Plates: Waist, Waste, and Wallet. Cornell University Food and Brand Lab. http://foodpsychology.cornell.edu/outreach/large-plates.html. Accessed April 20, 2015.
49Responsible food production
Baranski M, Srednicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, Sanderson R, et al. Higher Antioxidant and Lower Cadmium Concentrations and Lower Incidence of Pesticide Residues in Organically Grown Crops: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analyses. 2014. British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 112, Issue 5, pp. 794-811.
Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, et al. Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier than Conventional Alternatives?: A Systematic Review. 2012. Annals of Internal Medicine, Volume 157, Issue 5, pp. 348-366.
51Food production
Sommerfeld AJ, Waliczek TM, Zajicek JM. Growing Minds: Evaluating the Effect of Gardening on Quality of Life and Physical Activity Level of Older Adults. 2010. HortTechnology, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp. 705-710.
Zick CD, Smith KR, Kowaleski-Jones L, Uno C, Merrill BJ. Harvesting More than Vegetables: The Potential Weight Control Benefits of Community Gardening. 2013. American Journal of Public Health, Volume 103, Issue 6, pp. 1110-1115.
Castro DC, Samuels M, Harman AE. Growing Healthy Kids: A Community Garden-based Obesity Prevention Program. 2013. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 44, pp. S193-199.
52Mindful eating
Robinson E, Aveyard P, Daley A, Jolly K, Lewis A, et al. Eating Attentively: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Effect of Food Intake Memory and Awareness on Eating. 2013. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 97, Issue 4, pp. 728-742.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

53Visual lighting design
licht.de. licht.wissen 04: Office Lighting: Motivating and Efficient. Frankfurt; 2014: 35.
U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. March 2014, Washington, D.C., pp. 135-136.
Schubert EF. Human Eye Sensitivity and Photometric Quantities. Light-Emitting Diodes. 2nd ed. 2006. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 275-91.
54Circadian lighting design
Ko CH, Takahashi JS. Molecular Components of the Mammalian Circadian Clock. 2006. Human Molecular Genetics, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp. R271-R277.
Mistlberger RE, Skene DJ. Nonphotic Entrainment in Humans? 2005. Journal of Biological Rhythms, Volume 20, pp. 339-52.
Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Effect of Light on Human Circadian Physiology. 2009. Sleep Medicine Clinics, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 165-77.
Lucas RJ, Peirson SN, Berson DM, Brown TM, Cooper HM, et al. Measuring and Using Light in the Melanopsin Age. 2014. Trends in Neuroscience, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp. 1-9.
55Electric light glare control
Luckiesh M, Holladay LL. Glare and Visibility: A Resume of the Results Obtained in Investigations of Visual and Lighting Conditions Involving These Factors. 1925. Transactions, pp. 221-247.
Mainster MA, Turner PL. Glare’s Causes, Consequences, and Clinical Challenges after a Century of Ophthalmic Study. 2012. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 153, Issue 4, pp. 587-593.
licht.de. licht.wissen 04: Office Lighting: Motivating and Efficient. Frankfurt; 2014: 35.
56Solar glare control
Mainster MA, Turner PL. Glare’s Causes, Consequences, and Clinical Challenges after a Century of Ophthalmic Study. 2012. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 153, Issue 4, pp. 587-593.
licht.de. licht.wissen 04: Office Lighting: Motivating and Efficient. Frankfurt; 2014: 35.
57Low-glare workstation design
licht.de. licht.wissen 04: Office Lighting: Motivating and Efficient. Frankfurt; 2014: 35.
58Color quality
Gardner EP, Johnson KO. Sensory Coding. In: Kandel, ER, Schwartz, JH, Jessell, TM, et al, eds. Principles of Neural Science. 5th Edition, 2013. McGraw Hill Medical, New York, NY.
Eye Lighting International. R9 Color Rendering Value. 2015. http://www.eyelighting.com/resources/lighting-technology-education/general-lighting-basics/r9-color-rendering-value/. Accessed April 22, 2015.
59Surface design
Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Effect of Light on Human Circadian Physiology. 2009. Sleep Medicine Clinics, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 165-77.
61Right to light
Beauchemin KM, Hays P. Sunny Hospital Rooms Expedite Recovery from Severe and Refractory Depressions. 1996. Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 40, Issue 1-2, pp. 49-51.
Beauchemin KM, Hays P. Dying in the Dark: Sunshine, Gender and Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction. 1998. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 91, Issue 7, pp. 352-354.
Boubekri M, Cheung IN, Reid KJ, Wang C, Zee PC. Impact of Windows and Daylight Exposure on Overall Health and Sleep Quality of Office Workers – A Case-control Pilot Study. 2014. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp. 603-11.
62Daylight modeling
Wright Jr KP, McHill AW, Birks BR, Griffin BR, Rusterholz T, et al. Entrainment of the Human Circadian Clock to the Natural Light-dark Cycle. 2013. Current Biology, Volume 23, Issue 16, p.2013 1554-8.
63Daylighting fenestration
Edwards L, Torcellini P. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A Literature Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building Occupants. 2002. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/30769.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2015.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

64Interior fitness circulation
Boreham C, Kennedy RA, Murphy MH, Tully M, Wallace WF, et al. Training Effects of Short Bouts of Stair Climbing on Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Blood Lipids, and Homocysteine in Sedentary Young Women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp. 590-593.
Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Physical Activity and Stroke Incidence: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. 1998. Stroke, Volume 29, Issue 10, pp. 2049-2054.
65Activity incentive programs
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Activity and Health. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/health/index.html?s_cid=cs_284. Updated February 16, 2011. Accessed April 21, 2015.
Woodcock J, Franco OH, Orsini N, Roberts I. Non-vigorous Physical Activity and All-cause Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. 2011. International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp. 121-138.
Schumacher J, Utley J, Sutton L, Horton T, Hamer T, et al. Boosting Workplace Stair Utilization: A Study of Incremental Reinforcement. 2013. Rehabilitation Psychology, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp. 81-86.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Steps to Wellness: A Guide to Implementing the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans in the Workplace. 2012. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
66Structured fitness opportunities
Zavanela P, Crewther BT, Lodo L, Floringo AA, Miyabara EH, et al. Health and Fitness Benefits of a Resistance Training Intervention Performed in the Workplace. 2012. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Resource, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp. 811-817.
Christensen J, Faber A, Ekner D, Overgaard K, Holtermann A, et al. Diet, Physical Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Training as a Combined Workplace Based Intervention to Reduce Body Weight and Increase Physical Capacity in Health Care Workers – A Randomized Controlled Trial. 2011. BMC Public Health, Volume 11, pp 671. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175468. Accessed April 21, 2015.
67Exterior active design
Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL. Obesity Relationships With Community Design, Physical Activity, and Time Spent in Cars. 2004. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp. 87–96.
Ewing R, Cervero R. Travel and the Built Environment. 2010. Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp. 265-294.
New York City Departments of Design and Construction, Health and Mental Hygiene, Transportation, City Planning. Active Design Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design. Published 2010: 4-7; 34; 43; 72-76; 85-87.
68Physical activity spaces
Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM. Inequality in the Built Environment Underlies Key Health Disparities in Physical Activity and Obesity. 2005. Pediatrics, Volume 117, Issue 2, pp. 417-424.
Emmons K, Linnan LA, Shadel WG, Marcus B, Abrams DB. The Working Healthy Project: A Worksite Health-promotion Trial Targeting Physical Activity, Diet, and Smoking. 1999. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 41, Issue 7, pp. 545-555.
69Active transportation support
Millett C, Agrawal S, Sullivan R, Vaz M, Kurpad A, et al. Associations Between Active Travel to Work and Overweight, Hypertension, and Diabetes in India: A Cross-sectional Study. 2013. PLoS Medicine, Volume 10, Issue 6, e1001459. http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001459. Accessed April 28, 2015.
Blackford K, Jancey J, Howat P, Ledger M, Lee AH. Office-based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012. 2013. Preventing Chronic Disease, Volume 10, pp. 130029. http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.130029. Accessed April 21, 2015.
New York City Departments of Design and Construction, Health and Mental Hygiene, Transportation, City Planning. Active Design Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design. Published 2010: 4-7; 34; 43; 72-76; 85-87.
70Fitness equipment
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2008. Washington, D.C.
71Active furnishings
Schmid D, Leitzmann M. Television Viewing and Time Spent Sedentary in Relation to Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis. 2014. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 106, Issue 7, dju098. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/7/dju098.full?_ga=1.42982689.5272358. Accessed April 21, 2015.
Thorp A, Owen N, Neuhaus M, Dunstan DW. Sedentary Behaviors and Subsequent Health Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies, 1996-2011. 2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp. 207-215.
Thorp A, Kingwell BA, Owen N, Dunstan DW. Breaking Up Workplace Sitting Time with Intermittent Standing Bouts Improves Fatigue and Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Overweight/Obese Office Workers. 2014. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp. 765-771.
Buckley JP, Mellor DD, Morris M, Joseph F. Standing-based Office Work Shows Encouraging Signs of Attenuating Post-prandial Glycaemic Excursion. 2014. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp. 109-111.
Katzmarzyk P, Lee I-M. Sedentary Behaviour and Life Expectancy in the USA: A Cause-deleted Life Table Analysis. 2012. BMJ Open, Volume 2, e000828. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/4/e000828.full. Accessed April 28, 2015.
Owen N, Sparling PB, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Matthews CE. Sedentary Behavior: Emerging Evidence for a New Health Risk. 2010, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Volume 85, Issue 12, pp. 1138-1141.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

73Ergonomics: visual and physical
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors. 1997. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.
74Exterior noise intrusion
Sørensen M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Becker T, Tjønneland A, et al. Long-term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Incident Diabetes: A Cohort Study. 2013. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 121, pp. 217-222.
Sørensen M, Hvidberg M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Lillelund KG, et al. Road Traffic Noise and Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study. 2011. European Heart Journal, Volume 32, pp. 737-744.
Sørensen M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Jensen SS, Lillelund KG, et al. Road Traffic Noise and Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study. 2012. PLoS One, Volume 7, Issue 6, e39283. ;www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3380019/. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Jarup L, Babisch W, Houthuijs D, Pershagen G, Katsouyanni K, et al. Hypertension and Exposure to Noise Near Airports: The HYENA Study. 2008. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 116, Issue 3 pp. 329-333.
Elmenhorst EM, Elmenhorst D, Wenzel J, Quehl J, Mueller U, et al. Effects of Nocturnal Aircraft Noise on Cognitive Performance in the Following Morning: Dose-Response Relationships in Laboratory and Field. 2010. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Volume 83, pp. 743-751.
Jakovljevic B, Paunovic K, Belojevic G. Road-traffic Noise and Factors Influencing Noise Annoyance in an Urban Population. 2008. Environment International, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp. 552-556.
75Internally generated noise
U.S. General Services Administration Center for Workplace Strategy Public Buildings Service. Sound Matters: How to Achieve Acoustic Comfort in the Contemporary Office. Washington, D.C.: 2012: 11, 29, 32, 33, 36.
Hedge A. The Open-plan Office: A Systematic Investigation of Employee Reactions to Their Work Environment. 1982. Environment and Behaviour, Volume 14, pp. 519-542.
Banbury SP, Berry DC. Office Noise and Employee Concentration: Identifying Causes of Disruption and Potential Improvements. 2005. Ergonomics, Volume 48, pp. 25-37.
Perham N, Hodgetts H, Banbury S. Mental Arithmetic and Non-speech Office Noise: An Exploration of Interference-by-Content. 2013. Noise & Health, Volume 15, pp. 73-78.
Kaarlela-Tuomaala A, Helenius R, Keskinen E, Hongisto V. Effects of Acoustic Environment on Work in Private Office Rooms and Open-plan Offices – Longitudinal Study During Relocation. 2009. Ergonomics, Volume 52, pp. 1423-1444.
76Thermal comfort
Arens E, Zhang H. The Skin's Role in Human Thermoregulation and Comfort. From Thermal and Moisture Transport in Fibrous Materials. 2006. University of California Berkeley, Center for the Built Environment; Berkeley, CA.
Fisk WJ, Black D, Brunner G. Benefits and Costs of Improved IEQ in U.S. Offices. 2011. Indoor Air Journal, Volume 21, pp. 357-367.
Wargocki P, Wyon DP. The Effects of Moderately Raised Classroom Temperatures and Classroom Ventilation Rate on the Performance of Schoolwork by Children. 2007. HVAC&R Research, Volume 13, pp. 280-286.
77Olfactory comfort
Schiffman SS, Williams CM. Science of Odor as a Potential Health Issue. 2005. Journal of Environmental Quality, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp. 129-138.
78Reverberation time
Blomkvist V, Eriksen CA, Theorell T, Ulrich R, Rasmanis G. Acoustics and Psychosocial Environment in Intensive Coronary Care. 2005. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 3, e1. http://oem.bmj.com/content/62/3/e1. Accessed April 22, 2015.
79Sound masking
Jensen KL, Arens E, Zagreus L. Acoustical Quality in Office Workstations, as Assessed by Occupant Surveys. 2005. Proceedings, Indoor Air, September 4-9, Beijing, China.
U.S. General Services Administration Center for Workplace Strategy Public Buildings Service. Sound Matters: How to Achieve Acoustic Comfort in the Contemporary Office. Washington, D.C.: 2012: 11, 29, 32, 33, 36.
Loewen LJ, Suedfeld P. Cognitive and Arousal Effects of Masking Office Noise. 1992. Environment and Behavior, Volume 24, pp. 381-395.
80Sound reducing surfaces
Katz JD. Noise in the Operating Room. 2014. Anesthesiology, Volume 121, pp. 894-898.
Blomkvist V, Eriksen CA, Theorell T, Ulrich R, Rasmanis G. Acoustics and Psychosocial Environment in Intensive Coronary Care. 2005. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 3, e1. http://oem.bmj.com/content/62/3/e1. Accessed April 22, 2015.
83Radiant thermal comfort
Kim KW, Olesen BW. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. ASHRAE Journal, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp. 28-37.

Concept & Feature References

Concept & Feature References

84Health and wellness awareness
National Academy of Sciences. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. https://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2004/Health-Literacy-A-Prescription-to-End-Confusion/healthliteracyfinal.pdf. Published April 2004. Accessed April 22, 2015.
U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, 2011.
86Post-occupancy surveys
Sapolsky RM. Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers. Holt Paperbacks, 2004. p. 560.
88Biophilia I - qualitative
Ulrich RS. Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Design and Health. Stockholm, Sweden: Svensk Byggtjanst, 49-59.
Ulrich RS. View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery. 1984. Science, Volume 224, pp. 420-421.
89Adaptable spaces
Lee SY, Brand JL. Effects of Control over Office Workspace on Perceptions of the Work Environment and Work Outcomes. 2005. Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 25, pp. 323-333.
90Healthy sleep policy
Barber LK, Munz DC. Consistent-sufficient Sleep Predicts Improvements in Self-regulatory Performance and Psychological Strain. 2010. Stress and Health, Volume 27, pp. 314-324.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Insufficient Sleep is a Public Health Epidemic. http://www.cdc.gov/features/dssleep/. Updated January 13, 2014. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. In: Colten HR and Altevogt BM, eds. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. 2006. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
Lyytikainen O, Rahkonen O, Lahelma E, Lallukka T. Association of Sleep Duration with Weight and Weight Gain: A Prospective Follow-up Study. 2011. Journal of Sleep Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp. 298-302.
91Business travel
Striker J, Dimberg L, Liese BH. Stress and Business Travel: Individual, Managerial, and Corporate Concerns. 2000. Journal of Organizational Excellence, Volume 20, pp. 3-10.
92Building health policy
Baicker K, Taubman SL, Allen HL, Bernstein M, Gruber JH, et al. The Oregon Experiment – Effects of Medicaid on Clinical Outcomes. 2013. New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 368, pp. 1713-1722.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Workplace Health Promotion. http://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/businesscase/benefits/. Updated October 23, 2013. Accessed April 22, 15.
93Workplace family support
Halpern DF. How Time-flexible Work Policies can Reduce Stress, Improve Health and Save Money. 2005. Stress and Health, Volume 21, pp. 157-168.
94Self-monitoring
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/prctgd_c.pdf. Published 2000. Accessed April 24, 2015.
Community Preventive Services Task Force. Technology-supported Multicomponent Coaching or Counseling Interventions to Reduce Weight and Maintain Weight Loss. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity/TechnologicalCoaching.html. Updated December 9, 2013. Accessed April 24, 2015.
95Stress and addiction treatment
The National Academies. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. 2001. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
96Altruism
Clary EG, Snyder M. The Motivations to Volunteer: Theoretical and Practical Considerations. 1999. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Volume 8, pp. 156-159.
Mental Health Foundation. Altruism. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/A/altruisim/. Accessed April 22, 2015.
98Organizational transparency
Kivimaki M, Ferrie JE, Head J, Shipley MJ, Vahtera J, et al. Organisational Justice and Change in Justice as Predictors of Employee Health: The Whitehall II Study. 2004. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Volume 58, pp. 931-937.
99Beauty and design II
Gesler W, Bell M, Curtis S, Hubbard P, Francis S. Therapy by Design: Evaluating the UK Hospital Building Program. 2004. Health and Place, Volume 10, pp. 117-128.
100Biophilia II - quantitative
Ulrich RS. Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Design and Health. Stockholm, Sweden: Svensk Byggtjanst, 49-59.